Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological ...
Element. Description . The case. Object of the case study identified as the entity of interest or unit of analysis. Program, individual, group, social situation, organization, event, phenomena, or process
Qualitative Case Study Methodology
The author would like to thank angelika schmidt and jürgen mühlbacher for their kind support and advice. These are especially important when trying to generalize results. Before we take a look at the individual steps in the process of conducting case study research, it is now time to deliver a definition of what case study research actually is.
The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and stake emphasizes the researchers interpretive role as essential in the process. For stake (2006), to understand the case requires experiencing the activity of the case as it occurs in its context and in its particular situation (p. Besides, the analyzing of data is enhanced by reference to the existing literature and using this to raise questions about whether the researchers findings are consistent with or different from extant research (ibid.
It can be measured through inter-coder reliability for which a range of measures and indices have been developed. Kelle, 2001, 1-5 tashakkori & teddlie, 1998, pp. Given the variation in definitions and descriptions, referring to case study research as a methodology andor a single method can be perplexing, misleading, and at times counterproductive (anthony & jack, 2009 boblin, ireland, kirkpatrick & robertson, 2013 flyvbjerg, 2011).
Generally, it can be said that qualitative techniques emerge form phenomenological and interpretive paradigms, with the emphasis being on constructivist approaches where there is no clear-cut objectivity or reality (cassell & symon, 1994, p. Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective. Its development (section 4.
Professions including the social sciences, education, health, law, management, business, and urban planning have embraced case study research, demonstrating these outcomes. The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. Even though they concede that this is not a particularly satisfactory approach, they claim that it is not infrequently used (remenyi et al.
According to yin (2003a) there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts (pp. Therefore, triangulation can potentially generate what anthropologists call holistic work or thick description (jick, 1979, p. Finally an explicatory paraphrase is made of the particular portion of text and the explication is examined with reference to the total context. Like other forms of qualitative research, the researcher will seek to explore, understand and present the participants perspectives and get close to them in their natural setting (creswell, 2013). In fact, a theory or theoretical framework first emerges through the inductive approach of studying an empirical case or object, not through a deductive process.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study ...
Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January 2006 . The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research. Florian Kohlbacher. Abstract: This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research.
Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Case study - Wikipedia
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Denzin & yvonna s. Yin suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic cases are chosen to produce anticipated contrasting findings (theoretical replication) or similar findings (literal replication).
Knowledge generated from the research process is relative to the time and context of the study and the researcher is interactive and participates in the study. However, the basic difference between classical content analysis and structuring within qualitative content analysis is the development and use of the coding agenda.
1, The most significant contributors to this field were stake (1995, 2006) and merriam (1998.
Bridging the gap between quantitative and qualitative approaches, In fact.
Amazon.com: Embedded Case Study Methods: Integrating ...
Kracauers 1952 article the challenge of qualitative content analysis can be seen as a critical reaction to berelsons book (kracauer, 1952). According to him, it is not by counting and measuring that patterns or wholes in texts can be demonstrated but by showing the different possibilities of interpretation of multiple connotations (gläser & laudel, 2004, p. According to yin (2003a) one of the most important sources of case study information is the interview most commonly, case study interviews are of an , in which you can ask key respondents about the facts of a matter as well as their opinions about events (yin, 2003a, p. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Besides, due to the limited scope of this paper and my own research interests, the focus will mainly be on organizational and managerial research, even though both qualitative content analysis as well as case study research can be used in a much wider range of research fields (see also sections 3.
The most significant contributors to this field were stake (1995, 2006) and merriam (1998, 2009). Examples for this can be found from mayring and gläser-zikuda (2005) as well as from 9) different types of triangulation as well as other issues concerning this subject go beyond the scope of this paper and thus are not discussed here. We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found within case study designs. In uwe flick, ernst von kardorff & ines steinke (eds. Consequently, over the last 40 years, through the application of a variety of methodological approaches, case study research has undergone substantial development.
Case study, however, has a practical versatility in its agnostic approach whereby it is not assigned to a fixed ontological, epistemological or methodological position (rosenberg & yates, 2007, p. The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited in qualitative research. Yin himself describes his approach to case study as using a realist perspective (p. One main characteristic of this dispute seems to be the dichotomous way in which qualitative and quantitative research (methods) were presented as well as the resulting strict contraposition of the two (cf. Systematic, rule-based analysis the material is to be analyzed step by step, following rules of procedure, devising the material into content analytical units. Because of the problems of reliability, the coding of texts is usually assigned to multiple coders so that the researcher can see whether the constructs being investigated are shared and whether multiple coders can reliably apply the same codes (mayring, 2003, p. Case studies do not imply the use of a particular type of evidence and they can be done using either qualitative or quantitative evidence (or both) (eisenhardt, 1989, pp. Besides, a careful description of the data and the development of categories in which to place behaviors or process have proven to be important steps in the process of analyzing the data. An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding.Bridging the gap between quantitative and qualitative approaches, this book presents methods for interrelating and integrating the variables, findings, and evaluations from the facets of the case (i.e., different perspectives of inquiry such as participant observation, open-ended interviews, etc.) or subunits of case inquiry.
The case study as a type of qualitative researchThe case study as a type of qualitative research 29 Introduction Case studies were one of the first types of research to be used in the field of qualitative 1methodology.
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However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. In fact, mayring (2002) recommends his qualitative content analysis in the case of theory-guided text analysis but rather not in the case of merely explorative-interpretive interpretation of the material (p. In fact, the contribution of using qualitative content analysis in case study research will be demonstrated on the basis of the following points one of the strengths of qualitative content analysis is the way it tries to synthesize opennessas claimed by the qualitative research paradigmand theory-guided investigationusually demanded by the hypothetical-deductive paradigm. Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective Buy now Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Stake (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry, but at the same time concedes that they are neither new nor essentially qualitative (p. Here the text can be structured according to content, form and scaling. As a final stage the results are processed. It will be checked whether the distinctions between categories are too fine. Maintaining meticulous records and a systematic chain of evidence over the duration of the study is critical as is being able to access, present and explain procedures supports the ethical integrity and rigor of the research and findings (merriam, 2009 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014).
Phd is professor and head of nursing, midwifery and nutrition at james cook university, australia Qualitative Case Study Methodology Buy now
Qualitative research designs selection and implementation. Following this criterion the material is worked through and categories are deduced tentatively and step by step. Fitting the material into a model of communication it should be determined on what part of the communication inferences shall be made, to aspects of the communicator (his experiences, opinions, feelings), to the situation of the text production, to the socio-cultural background, to the text itself or to the effect of the message. In a final stepor a final series of stepsthe results and findings of a case study need to be brought to closure. Subject-reference instead of technique instead of merely being a set of techniques for text analysis, the connection to the concrete subject of analysis is a very important point for qualitative content analysis Buy Qualitative Case Study Methodology at a discount
This resulted in placing more emphasis on inductive exploration, discovery, and holistic analysis that was presented in thick descriptions of the case. Merriam (2009) acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority. Professions including the social sciences, education, health, law, management, business, and urban planning have embraced case study research, demonstrating these outcomes. Or, put differently case study is not a methodological choice but a choice of what is to be studied. This involves being selective and specific in identifying the parameters of the case including the participants, location andor process to be explored, and establishing the timeframe for investigating the case (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014) Buy Online Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Since then mayrings works seem to have become standard literature on qualitative content analysis and some regularly appear in new editions (e. I am indebted to an anonymous reviewer whovery correctlypointed the following out to me this statement is formulated too strict not all units of analysis (depends on the sort of unit and the concrete technique) must be coded and inductive categories are not operationalizations of variables but it is true, that the interpretative but rule guided process of assigning categories to text portions is crucial for qualitative content analysis. The so-called inter-coder reliability shows to what extent different coders agree in the coding of the same text and intra-coder reliability explains how stable the coding of one coder is Buy Qualitative Case Study Methodology Online at a discount
This context led to a philosophical division in research approaches those supporting positivism and quantitative approaches and those aligned with qualitative methods embedded in constructivist and interpretivist paradigms. In a final stepor a final series of stepsthe results and findings of a case study need to be brought to closure. We just mentioned theory-guided analysis as one of the special strengths of qualitative content analysis (see above, section 5. Royal institute of technology in cooperation with the international association of peopleenvironment studies, stockholm, september 22-24, 2003, httpwww. Because of this, constructivism and interpretivism commonly permeate the implementation of this research design Qualitative Case Study Methodology For Sale
Theory-guided analysis technical fuzziness of qualitatively oriented research needs to be balanced by theoretical stringency. In fact, the ultimate goal of the case study is to uncover patterns, determine meanings, construct conclusions and build theory (patton & appelbaum, 2003, p. Furthermore, postpositivists accept that everyone is inherently biased in worldviews, which ultimately influence how the methods used are deployed. Stake (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry (p. However, he fails to go into greater detail concerning this matter.
However, great efforts have also been made to reconcile both sides (or, where not possible, at least to soothe the dispute), thus providing the opportunity to exploit the advantages of both approaches and opening the way for synergy effects (e For Sale Qualitative Case Study Methodology
Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researchers level of connection to and being immersed in the field. Interestingly, yin (2003b) in his companion book to his case study textbook (yin, 2003a) speaks of the case study method (pp. Qualitative methods and cross-method dialogue in political science. Because of the problems of reliability, the coding of texts is usually assigned to multiple coders so that the researcher can see whether the constructs being investigated are shared and whether multiple coders can reliably apply the same codes (mayring, 2003, p. Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather in terms of its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases (hartley, 2004, p Sale Qualitative Case Study Methodology
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